Assessment is one of my concerns when it comes to teaching and learning. It is not only because of my obligation as a teacher, but also many problems and issues that happened in my country related to the fairness of assessments. My experiences taught me that teaching is not only presenting the teaching material, but also giving the meaningful learning experiences for my students.

My experiences through out this semester, especially in the assessment and evaluation class really help me a lot to think about ideal assessments that I can apply. Assessments can help the teachers to create meaningful learning experiences to their students. Teachers can motivate their students to improve their performances. In addition, students can participate to assess their own learning progress. The important part of the application of the assessment is teacher willingness to work hard to apply the assessment which can appropriate to assess their students’ performance.

All in all, this class allowed me to become a more focused teacher. I believe that with the knowledges I have obtained during this course and with the changes I have made that I have improved immensely as a teacher.


Case Studies and Scenarios


Scenarios, Case Studies, and Role Plays on Biteable.

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Outcomes and Learning Activity Alignment

The learning activity should have a clear, specific skills and/or knowledge development purpose that is evident to both instructor and students. Students benefit from knowing the purpose of the exercise, learning outcomes it strives to achieve, and evaluation methods. The example shown in the table below is for a case study, but the focus on demonstration of what students will know and can do, and the alignment with appropriate learning activities to achieve those abilities applies to other learning activities


Implementing Cases

  • Take baby steps if new to CBL – While entire courses and curricula may involve case-based learning, instructors who desire to implement on a smaller-scale can integrate a single case into their class, and increase the number of cases utilized over time as desired.
  • Use cases in classes that are small, medium or large – Cases can be scaled to any course size. In large classes with stadium seating, students can work with peers nearby, while in small classes with more flexible seating arrangements, teams can move their chairs closer together. CBL can introduce more noise (and energy) in the classroom to which an instructor often quickly becomes accustomed. Further, students can be asked to work on cases outside of class, and wrap up discussion during the next class meeting.
  • Encourage collaborative work – Cases present an opportunity for students to work together to solve cases which the historical literature supports as beneficial to student learning (Bruffee, 1993). Allow students to work in groups to answer case questions.
  • Form diverse teams as feasible – When students work within diverse teams they can be exposed to a variety of perspectives that can help them solve the case. Depending on the context of the course, priorities, and the background information gathered about the students enrolled in the class, instructors may choose to organize student groups to allow for diversity in factors such as current course grades, gender, race/ethnicity, personality, among other items.
  • Use stable teams as appropriate – If CBL is a large component of the course, a research-supported practice is to keep teams together long enough to go through the stages of group development: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning (Tuckman, 1965).
  • Walk around to guide groups – In CBL instructors serve as facilitators of student learning. Walking around allows the instructor to monitor student progress as well as identify and support any groups that may be struggling. Teaching assistants can also play a valuable role in supporting groups.
  • Interrupt strategically – Only every so often, for conversation in large group discussion of the case, especially when students appear confused on key concepts. An effective practice to help students meet case learning goals is to guide them as a whole group when the class is ready. This may include selecting a few student groups to present answers to discussion questions to the entire class, asking the class a question relevant to the case using polling software, and/or performing a mini-lesson on an area that appears to be confusing among students.


University of New Brunswick : Creating Effective Scenarios, Case Studies, and Role Plays

University of New Brunswick : Research Findings on University Teaching Methods

UNSW Sydney : Assessment by Case Studies and Scenarios

Yale Center for Teaching and Learning : Case-Based Learning

Data Analysis

Grauer (1995), in his study, mentioned that teacher knowledge about art did not seem as strong an indicator of willingness to learn about art education as were the teachers’ beliefs about what education entailed. Their beliefs about subject seemed to be largely neglected by art educators yet appeared to strongly influence what they learned and what and how they taught. Attitudes and perceptions are the lenses through which art teachers’ develop a vision of teaching and learning.

This study was fueled by the over arching question, how do general art education teachers feel about having to teach art subject?



From the findings of independent sample t-test from this study, researcher can say that the specialist teacher had more definite beliefs in term of perception and attitude toward art education. They answered statements on the survey with stronger indicators of agreement or disagreement. What appeared more important is that, the attitudes and perceptions were influenced in both teacher education program and in the school experience.


The findings from ANOVA test, the art teachers’ attitudes and perceptions overall were influenced as much, if not more, by their own experience and age. Contrary to many assumptions, teachers who slighter older have difficult time to accept art education as an important subject. They still feel that the art subject is just a decoration in the curriculum. The art curriculum is a guide only and the attitudes and perceptions of teacher toward art education toward the art experience that engage children constitutes the basis for art education in most classrooms.


Attitudes and perceptions about pedagogy determine the way teachers enact the teaching and learning of art in classroom (Grauer, 1995). The relationship between this was explored using the multiple regression test in this study. The dynamic relationship between four dimensions that has been discussed implies that specialist and generalist art teacher need to take more serious and prominent role in art education to ensure that the students get what they deserve.

Table of Specification

Table of specification (TOS) is a plan prepared by a classroom teacher as a basis for test construction especially a periodic test. TOS is a two-way chart which describes the topics to be covered by a test and the number of items or points which will be associated with each topic.  A  TOS provides the teacher with evidence that a test has content validity, that it covers what should be covered. So here’s the example of TOS work.

Below is the example of TOS of Mid Year Exam for Year 6 TMK subject,


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From the TOS, we know that what topics that being ask in the question and how many questions per topic. It also helps to show the level of each question based on Anderson/Krathwohl’s Taxonomy.  

Here’s the example of the question based on the above TOS,


PDF Version

Society 5.0

If German/world has Industry 4.0, Japan has already step ahead with Society 5.0.

In April 2016, the Japanese government enacted the 5th Science and Technology Basic Plan. It covers many aspects, including innovation promotion and internationalization. A focus point, however, is the development of the society towards a Super Smart Society, the Society 5.0.



The backbone for Society 5.0 is Keidanren, Japan’s most important business federation.

The government’s “Society 5.0” program not only supports the economy, but above all focuses on the positive changes that increased digitization offers to and for the people of Japan. The program’s starting point is the definition of various challenges facing Japan in particular, such as the aging of the population, pollution and natural disasters. For each of these problem areas, Society 5.0 offers approaches to reduce or eliminate the threat.

The concept of Society 5.0 is the creation of a new smart society that helps to resolve social issues rather than making simple productivity improvements. To create such a society, Japan must eliminate barriers in five areas: ministries and agencies, legal systems, technology, human resources, and public acceptance.



Society 5.0, Toward realization of the new economy and society

Japan looks beyond Industry 4.0 towards Society 5.0

Realizing Society 5.0


The Fourth Industrial Revolution

The First Industrial Revolution used water and steam power to mechanize production. The Second used electric power to create mass production. The Third used electronics and information technology to automate production. Now a Fourth Industrial Revolution is building on the Third, the digital revolution that has been occurring since the middle of the last century. It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres.

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The fourth industrial revolution, Industry 4.0, the name given to the latest evolution in the digitisation and automation of manufacturing processes.

Industry 4.0 is a German strategic initiative mooted in 2011 under its High-Tech Strategy 2020 and adopted two years later.

It is aimed at revolutionising the manufacturing industry, by switching from centralised to decentralised networks under which connected equipment and devices communicate with each other to analyse and respond to information received.

The current era of Industry 4.0 is being shaped through big data analytics, artificial intelligence (AI), virtual reality, 3D printing, drones and the Internet of Things (IoT).

The origin of Industry 4.0 lies in the High-Tech Strategy of the German Government. The latest, published in 2014, defines six fields of priority:

  • The digital economy and society
  • The sustainable economy and energy
  • The innovative workplace
  • Healthy living
  • Intelligent mobility
  • Civil security

The first field, digital economy and society, made digitalization of the German Industry a very important and prominent topic and ultimately resulted in the term Industry 4.0.


Why Malaysian companies need Industry 4.0, is because it can help companies eliminate wastage, lower costs, increase their customer base and rise above the competition.

References ;

The Fourth Industrial Revolution : Things to Tighten the Link Between IT and OT

Industry 4.0: The future is here

Industry 4.0: the fourth industrial revolution – guide to Industrie 4.0

The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Southeast Asia comes of age